Terminology Abbreviations and Definitions

1. Terminology Abbreviations:

ADIA Australian Diagnostic Imaging Association
ACR American College of Radiology
AOA Australian Orthopaedic Association
BIR IHE Basic Image Review profile
CD Compact Disc
CR Computed Radiography
CT Computed Axial Tomography
DI Diagnostic Imaging>
DDI Digital Diagnostic Imaging 
DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization)
DIRWP Digital Imaging RACS Working Party
dpi dots per inch
DR Digital Radiography
DVD Digital Versatile Disc
GB Giga byte
GBit Giga bit
GIF Graphics Interchange Format
GSDF Grey Scale Display Function
HTML Hypertext Markup Language
IHE Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise
IOD Information Object Definition (DICOM)
ISO International Organization for Standardization (www.iso.org)
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPEG 2000 a wavelet-based image compression standard, created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000
LAN Local area network
LCD Liquid display device – digital display
LUT  Look Up Tables. Relates to DICOM greyscale calibration
MB Megabyte
MDCT Multi-Detector (row) Computed Tomography (“multi-slice CT”)
MP Mega pixel
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
OFFIS  Media Exchange Certification Project of the German Radiological Society (Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft e. V.)

PACS Picture Archiving and Communication System

PDIPortable Data for Imaging (IHE Profile)

PNG Portable Network Graphics

RACSRoyal Australasian College of Surgeons

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks

RANZCRRoyal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists

RIS Radiology Information System

SOP Service Object Pair

SMPT Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers standard

SPECT/CT Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT – a fusion of nuclear medicine imaging and CT

SSD Solid State Drive

UDF Universal Disk Format

USB Universal Serial Bus

USB SSD Solid State Drive memory that connects with a computer via a USB interface

WAN Wide Area Network (BAN – Broad Area Network)

XDS-I Cross Enterprise Document Sharing (from IHE to facilitate clinical documents sharing)

XHTML Extensible Hypertext Markup Language

2. Definitions:

 Diagnostic Imaging Provider - the person(s) who performs or supervises the performance of the diagnostic imaging service, and who usually provides the primary analysis and opinion on the obtained images.  This typically refers to radiologists, but may also include vascular surgeons, cardiologists, obstetricians and any other person who is appropriately accredited by the local regulatory authority.

 Diagnostic Quality Image - an image that is comparable in quality and presentation to that used by radiologists in reporting.

 In some cases it is important that a diagnostic quality image is measurable, and thus capable of being analysed to produce linear dimensions that the clinician will unambiguously understand.   Any technique may be used as long as the end user is able to obtain an accurate, reproducible linear measurement within the particular clinical environment

 Film - transparent polyester sheets, by which diagnostic images are distributed in hard copy as continuous tone shades of grey.  While such film can be generated by either photographic / analogue capture, or laser printed images derived from a digital image, for the purposes of this document, both forms are grouped under the term film.

 Lossless - data which when decompressed produces images identical to the original

 Lossy - data which when decompressed produces images of different (usually reduced) quality than the original

 Reduced Quality Image – Any image that is not a Diagnostic Quality Image

 Scout images (also known as “scout films”, “pilot images”, “topograms”, “surviews”) - images on which the location of cross-sectional image(s) relative to key anatomical landmarks may be displayed.  The scout image may be a digital projection radiograph (like a traditional ‘X-ray’), a cross-sectional image in another plane, or a projection image of a 3-dimensional model.  For spine studies, the scout images will typically be either a lateral projection radiograph (CT), or a mid-sagital cross-sectional image (CT or MRI).

 Scout images are used :
(1) to aid the technologist in planning the location(s) at which cross-sectional images are to be obtained, and choosing their orientation ;
(2) to enable the viewer of a cross-sectional image to define its relationship to the overall anatomy of the patient.

 Source image / Source data CT or MR imaging data which is generally the actual voxel information obtained during the cross sectional  image capture, and is an intermediate step between the image acquisition and the processed image data usually used for diagnostic interpretation - sometimes referred to as “thins” in CT parlance.  More complicated post-processing can convert these images into 3D representations of some or all of the anatomy included in the original part of he patient that was imaged – this is useful for unobstructed display of, e.g., bones, or arteries.
Although they may or
may not be utilised during the reporting process, these data are available to reporting radiologists from the imaging modality itself for further processing or re-processing if required. Almost all are in DICOM format, and can be exported on PDI-compliant media if desired, however the data sets may be very large (e.g. >1000   512 x 512 matrix images), and can exceed the storage capacity of a single CD (or even a single DVD). Some specialised applications (e.g. some MR spectroscopy, 3D angiography, 3D ultrasound, some scintigraphy) use non-DICOM data formats, though many of these are moving towards DICOM representations.

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